Thursday, October 31, 2019

Branding and Marketing of Kooler Refresh Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Branding and Marketing of Kooler Refresh - Essay Example This paper analyzes the branding concept in relation to the launch of a new product and is realized in the development of a soft drink. The product under consideration is Kooler Refresh that is meant to be a competitive drink against the existing products within the U.S. market. With the desire for the market to experiment on newly developed products, Kooler Refresh has been advanced to compete against the established products like Coca-cola and Pepsi that dominate the market share. Brand Positioning Kooler Refresh is a new product to be launched within the U.S. market under the soft drink category to counter the development of a dominant market share by existence products. The product has been based on the need to deliver affordable brand with familiar flavor and quality as compared to the existing brands. The product also seeks to target a defined demographic with the contents within the brand promising added incentive to the consumer. Why Kooler Refresh The soft drink is produced based on the natural fruits as the sole ingredient with the only additive being sugar and glucose. The component comes in variable flavors with the tropical mango, orange and strawberry expected to dominate sales. The new brand targets the demographic that requires valuable taste, health and energy. The target is included in energetic youth and elderly individuals who present the need in delivering satisfactory consumption rate. The product had also been launched based on the principle of affordability after conducting research on the three leading flavors on the demographic. This had been done in three local schools that offered preference to the brand as compared to the other competitors. The leading brands within the market have been in Coca-Cola with Pepsi taking the second position. These brands have utilized the concept of endorsement from celebrity and leading functions in marketing the product. The other paramount position had been realized in the period applied by their mar keters to gain the market share. These brands minimize the prevalence of a new product through promotional campaign and the preference of the customers on a familiar taste of brand. These have been most dominant propositions with customers failing to purchase alternative products at lower products for the recognized brands (Gelder, 2005). However, Kooler Refresh is planning to take advantage of the current market trend. With the catchy phrase that is based on the marketing campaign to promote the healthy product, the competition would be sustained with the realization of the harmful carbonated drinks. The brand targets majority of the customers to be the youth and young energetic children. These are the target that requires added flavor to the drink with positive implications to developing their health. The company also wishes to maximize on generating profit through investing on affordable prices on the established quantities. Kooler Refresh not only rejuvenates the health presenta tion, but also presents a quality taste to be linked to the natural fruit composition that lacks in the competitors drink Moreover, the packaging would be in recyclable material with a uniquely designed ? liter bottle to be used for extended purposes like holding water. Brand Concept The proposed applied strategy to achieve the market position had been in the development of an outstanding brand name. Kooler Refresh is a name that does not share similarity to any other soft drink product in the

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Production of a teaching material with accompanying commentary on Essay

Production of a teaching material with accompanying commentary on design principles (equivalent of 3500 words) - Essay Example According to Syatriana et al, (2013, p.11), writing and speaking are termed as the productivity skills while reading and listening are both the receptive skills. Productivity skills are the fruits of receptive skills. Therefore, reading and listening skills within the students will always determine their overall performances. Our instructional material will focus the language skills for grammar improvement to be fully felt. The appendix will show the instructional materials that were used. This model argues that the first stage in the development of teaching materials is for the teachers and learners to identify the current trends in teaching and learning respectively. Every time the material developer should ensure that they always introduce new materials. The next phase will be to identify the area of problem that the language subjects are experiencing since one neither can nor solve a problem that has no roots. Contextualization of the materials is the next stage whereby the locally available materials are used in language skills. Pedagogical realization will involve design of appropriate exercise, activities and assignments that will help the students to gauge what they have leant. Finally, the materials are physically produced in the form of course books inclusive of visual, book size and layout (Syatriana et al., 2013, p.15). I am going to apply the model in designing of the instructional materials. In the two hours lesson, the students are going to improve their grammar skills in usage of articles and comparative and superlative phrases. In conjunction with the intended lesson plan, the students will have a chance to refresh on their past learnt materials and apply them. For example, there will be use of punctuation marks and opposites. The punctuation marks to be used are comma, full stop and question marks. As a teacher, the usage of the articles will first be defined and their appropriate use made in vowels and consonant

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Dimensions Of Interprofesssional Practice Nursing Essay

The Dimensions Of Interprofesssional Practice Nursing Essay This reflective Commentary will focus on a patients discharge planning liaison drawn from my experience in attending a Multidisciplinary team Meeting (MDT) held at my Elective Placement (Cardiology Ward) in the context of the dimensions of Interprofesssional Working (IPW) I will preliminary define in the introduction IP working; recognize policies; introduce patient scenario, identify the Reflection Model which I will use to evaluate and analyse the Dimensions of IPW. IPW refers to professionals with different training backgrounds (medical, surgical, counselling, psychotherapy, Occupational Therapist, physiotherapist) sharing common goals an objectives but who make a difference but complimentary contribution to the given client group in order to provide holistic care (Leathard, 2003). IPW has been highlighted by the United Kingdom (UK) government in a series of policies which shaped and continue to shape the way services and professionals work interprofesssionally. In 1998 The Department of Health (DoH) (1998) encouraged joint working through integrated provision. In 1999 papers such as DoH (1999) re-enforced that the effective care is the product of interagency working, promoting NHS to move towards interagency collaborative working or IPW in a shift from institutional to community-based care. The DoH (2000) a ten year programme of redevelopment practice to design and promotes a patient centered service and promote IP and Holistic care. One of the areas the DOH (2000) considered needed improving was the older generation patient discharge. To combat this, standard two of The Single Assessment Process (SAP) and Intermediate care services (ICS) was introduced by the National Service Framework for Older People by DoH (2001a) and this required services and professiona ls to work together in a co-ordinated assessment of needs for patients. From this, House of Commons Health Committee (2002) called for a number of key changes, one of them being a named Care Manager to coordinate all stages of the patient journey through hospital, up to and beyond discharge. And this coordination liaison could take the form of an MDT discharge planning meeting (DP). New ways of working have to be found that cross professional boundaries, in order to allow a more flexible approach to care delivery (DoH, 2002). To achieve this, the Government introduced Interprofesssional Education (IPE) in pre-registered students modules and their aim was to integrate IPE into their curriculum, enabling students to develop transferable skills that will facilitate communication and collaboration in the future (Barr, et al., 2005). Rattay and Mehanna (2008) suggest that as students should make an effort to attend MDT meetings to develop IP. I have used pseudonyms throughout my reflective commentary, to protect confidentiality in accordance with the Data Protection Act (1998) and the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2009). I will refer to the patient as Sam. Sam is a 74 year old lady who lives alone in a ground floor flat. Sam has no family living locally however her neighbour visits regularly. Sam suffers from Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). Prior to admission Sam was fully independent at house cooping with her Activities of Daily living (ADLs) with slight difficulty due to breathing and poor balance (which Sam reported to suffering from for years). Sam was originally brought into hospital via accident and emergency by her neighbour as her breathing became progressively worse. There are many potential models of reflection. I will use Gibbs (1988) Model of Reflection (Appendix 1) as I find it more straightforward due to being depicted as a cycle, encouraging critical evaluation and analysis of the incident. Cyclical models are suggested by Ghaye (1998) to deepen awareness and increase knowledge and skilfulness from repeated movements around them. Reflection will able me to learn from the experience and identify my learning needs in areas which solicit improvements (Allen, et al., 2008). As suggested by Price (2006) Reflection makes a connection between theory, policies and practice required to develop evidence-based practice, professional and academic growth throughout my career; important in the development of lifelong learning (NMC (2009). Description The MDT meeting was held at the sisters office. The MDT consisted of a Ward Nurse (who was there intermittently due to staff levels), a Heart Failure Nurse Specialist (HFNS). Care Manager (Social Worker), Physiotherapist, Occupational Therapist, Doctor (Cardiologist Register) and myself. The meeting was led by the Doctor who gave an introductory overview of the Sams social situation and medical condition. The Doctor recommended that Sam was medically fit for discharge with a referral for HFNS community visits, as further health education was necessary. The physiotherapist suggested Sam was regaining confidence in her mobility but recommended further input to improve Sams balance and posture. The ward Nurse suggested Sams Nursing needs were stable and no input was required on discharged, upon this, I respectively argued that Sam discussed with myself earlier in the shift that she felt she was not coping at home and would feel more confident if she had minimal assistance with her ADLs at home. The Doctor re-directed the question to the HFNS, who re-directed the question to the Ward Nurse, both dismissing my input. At this point I respectfully assured the MDT that what I was advocating, it was also documented in Sam care plan. Subsequently, The HFNS requested Sams discharge planning to be discussed in a second meeting.. Following to this, The Occupational Therapist recommended she would liaise with Sam regarding any house equipment that would facilitate Sams ADLs. The social worker (Care manager) who would be coordinating all stages of Sams journey through hospital, up to and beyond discharge, organise possible (i) care (ii) meals on wheels. The Doctor summarised the MDT plan and rescheduled the meeting for 2 days to allow professionals to liaise with Sam in order to evaluate the discharge planning in partnership with Sam. Doctor was reluctant to reschedule and to change Sams expected day of discharge (EDD), it seemed. In the follow up MDT meeting, Sam was medical ly fit for discharge, her it seemed, had improved, as had her slightly her confidence but she could still benefit from further rehabilitation; therefore, Sam was referred to Intermediate Care Services (ICS) (Appendix 2) for further rehabilitation in the community, with out-patient medical follow up and HFNS home visits. Feelings When I asked my Mentor to attend the MDT meeting, I was excited as I was going to be able to see how the IPW provides a positive outcome for the patients. Slightly anxious but ready to be a Patient advocate. Soon it dawned on me when I was introduced to other professionals and given opportunities to work with them and I felt slightly insecure at the thought of having to expose myself to the criticisms of others. When Discussing Sams DP I commented on her behalf the feeling of slight insecurity was soon overpowered by a feeling of achievement as I was in a position to be her advocate appropriately and contribute in making a difference to her life for better. This feeling overpowered the shuttled frustration I felt when the Doctors dismissed initially my input but understandable due to my still pre-reg position, he needed reassurance as this input was going to change Sam EDD. As the meeting was lead by the Doctor I had inadvertently imposed a sense of hierarchy upon the group. I soon f elt that the hierarchy, even after the incident above, was not actually evident once a patient DP was being discussed as every professional was having a say and all professional seemed to understand each others responsibilities, roles and the documentation used involved all MDT input. I felt that through the discussions each professionals identify was gain and respect was given accordingly, although, I considered there was possibility of gaining a professional personality stereotypes and therefore ultimately a hierarchy may develop in future group meetings. By the end of it, I still felt slightly daunted to be in a MDT meeting working with professionals who knew so much (i) HFNS who developed their careers to a point of extreme knowledge, it overwhelmed me, that I am still just in the beginning of an extraordinary journey. Evaluation In accordance to Holland, et al. (2005) and Gonseth, et al. (2004) Heart Failure Nurse Specialist (HFNS) input was fundamental as HF patients as Sam require close clinical management and encouragement to manage their symptoms in order to remain in the community (James and Sarah, 2008). Furthermore, Blue, at al. (2001) randomised controlled trial suggested that HFN have the ability to focus not only on the clinical needs of the patient, but the educational and supportive needs as well as establishing effective liaison between health and social care. Although HFNS is important in the provision of Sams Good Health in the community, without front line staff (i) ward nurse to document appropriately and report to the appropriate professional and act as an advocate for patients in meeting such this, the provision of IP working and Safe Discharge Planning would be compromised (Atwal and Caldwel (2006). Record keeping was to be commended as the Discharge planning Form (DPF) (Appendix 3) was filled in from admission and updated regularly by Sams Multidisciplinary team regarding assessment, planning, and implementation and evaluation goals specific to each professional to establish safe discharge. Effective record keeping is the key factor to effective care and continuation of care of Patient; and a Code of Conduct requirement for excellence practice and care (NMC, 2009). The Community Rehabilitation/Intermediate Care Services (ICS) Appendix 3. Referral was suggested appropriately in order to meet Sams needs, in accordance with the DoH (2001a, 2001b) agrees that ICS establishes IP working and avoids duplication, enhances communication and allows each team member to view and check the patient notes at all times. Furthermore Godfrey, et al, (2005) suggests that it enhances Holistic care. According to Leathard and Cook (2009) Sams care could be considered Holistic as her physical, psychological, sociological, spiritual needs were addressed, and Sams views were considered alongside any recommendations offered by all the different multi-disciplinary teams in a mutual participation in a shared decision-making partnership. With changes in Nhs such as patient-centred care (DoH, 1998), and the establishment of sophisticated holistic approach to health and social care, one of the key features of Sams patient centred care is the development and implementation of integrated care pathways (ii) collaborative care plans such ICS, providing Sam with a continuity of care. MDT meeting structure seemed to reflect The DoH (1998) in its drive for a first class service as staff seemed to clear understands of how their own roles fit with others in both the health and social care professions. Although, Role Clarity was predominant and significant, the Status caused distress within the MDT; it made some members feel their opinions are not as important as others (Robinson, et al., 2005). Furthermore, at certain points of the discussion the blurring of the boundaries of ones discipline Ward Nurse and (HFSN) (i) Doctor redirected the question about Sam to the HFSN first instead of the ward Nurse. I agree with Molyneux (2001) is a factor that may create a competitive atmosphere rather than a collaborative one. In addition to the group dynamics, the situation of Sam needing care set up also highlighted the tension between professionals and in a sense organizational aims and resources. Analysis The DoH (2000, 2006) stressed the need for team working to helping rove the quality of care to patients and encourage role development to meet the demands of IP working. (i) Registered nurse specialists are expanding their roles and skills in numerous clinical areas (DoH 1999, 2006) due to patients diversity of needs in todays society (Furlong and Smith, 2005). According to DoH (2000, 2003) and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2003) Heart failure care and management is one of this areas which had an increase in nurse specialists (HFNS) in a broad evaluation by Patterden, et al., (2008) which showed that HFNS reduced (i) all-cause admissions by an average of 35 per cent an average saving of  £1,826 per patient is gained after the costs of the nurse have been deducted. Furthermore, a systematic review by Holland, et al., (2005) argues that HFNS management of HF associated with (reducing readmissions, improving patients quality of life, Like Sam and reducing finan cial costs is more efficient compared with medical management. In outcome, Hewison (2004) and Abbot, et al., (2005) agreed that although the development of roles and increased flexibility is usually a benefit to many professions, it can be seen as a threat for their own interest and power status, generating a resistance to IP collaborations. Moreover according to Molyneux (2001) a tribalism sense. This is normally the professional at the top of the hierarchy (i) as when the doctor was resistant to move the EED. Furthermore, as far back as 1998 when (DoH, 1998) was published, Stapleton (1998) suggested that Collaborative working emphasis that demarcations and hierarchical relations between professions are neither sustainable nor appropriate. Although, in Sams MDT it was apparent in agreement with Hean (2006) my preliminary feelings of hierarchy are common and traditionally hierarchies place more power to the medical profession. The tension seemed in a way to be overcome through the structured but open discussion regarding Sams needs which according to Freeth (2001) open discussion helps develop the team and recognise the benefits and the diversity and development of skills. Martin and Roger (2004) highlight that it is important to premise a clear understanding and appreciation not just for the roles but also for the pressures of other professionals (i) performance targets to meet. The Qualitative methodology questionnaire led interviews and focus group (18 cases studiers across Europe) by Coxon (2005) suggestion that IP working promotes job satisfaction, improved team working, good communication and enhance co-operation with other agencies, and identifies IP difficulties to be due to organizational boundaries and financial limits. Additionally, Hubbard and Themessi-Huber (2005) used the same method as Coxon (2005) although he identified that a main difficulty to IP is managers focusing on policies and changes of services: arranging MDT meeting whilst front line staff, as ward nurses need to adapt to practicalities of the IP. Atwal, and Caldwell (2006) argues the importance of staff ratios as a barrier to nurses developing IP practices, furthermore a study carried by both with nineteen nurses in acute health care ward, it is spotted that in MDT meetings not all the professionals involved in the care of a patient are invited and that nurses did not regularly att end the meetings due to staff ratios. Another conclusion of this study is that nurses not always express their opinion for fear of being made a scapegoat, the result from the research show as well, that consultants and medical staff usually speak first and with more confidence on all issues. In divergence, Barrett and Keeping (2005) argues that collaborative working should minimise staff pressures from a ward level to community (primary and secondary setting) but research done within this Era of IPW still shows that at a nursing level in a 2005 survey by RCN (2006) found that 49% of nurses left the NHS due to stress/workload problems. Horder (2004) and Pullon and Fry (2005) goes further to suggest to overcome the work pressure, shared decision making is the ultimate hallmark of partnership and this requires distribution of power or the empowerment of all involved within the multidisciplinary professionals in a manner that would equalize the hierarchy through (i) through IPE. It is essential that health and social care professionals realise the important of IPW as it has now been recognised that a single profession can no longer deliver the complex patient care that is demanded nowadays, a holistic approach is required (CAIPE, 2007). Rattay and Mehanna, (2008) suggest in summary that structured MDT meeting provides the discharge process with a structure that is organised professionally and timely, allowing patients to return home earlier safely, consequently reducing the NHS cost, minimising the risk of hospital acquired infections, promoting independence and enabling patients to return back to their homes and community, like Sam. Lack of co-operation between agencies has led to a failure of service (Glasby, et al., 2004). Communication within the team is also an important issue to good collaborative working, developing ways to communicate and to work together is the key for successful IP working (Abbott, et al., 2005). The NMC (2004) advises that at the point of registration students should have the necessary skills to communicate effectively with colleagues and other departments to improve patient care. Cook, et al., (2004) identify that communication and decision making are very important for teams. Larking and Callaghan (2005) argue that teams who do not regularly hold meetings for policy making and resolutions of differences, should not be considered a team, these findings are also emphasized by Molyneux (2001) who states that communication is supported with weekly MDT meetings in order to evaluate and plan patient centred care delivery. Conclusion This reflective commentary allows me to connect policies, NMC requirements, theory and practice. It provided me with the assurance that the dimensions of IPW is complex but possible in practice IPE exists. It highlighted that different professionals have to deal with their own perceptions and adapt to changes. There is no doubt that IPW promotes a better and more holistic care and the documentation in place promotes further patient-centered care. The MDT gave me the opportunity to work closely with other professionals and understanding further their roles. This will help me to effectively work together in the future. Action Plan I will allocate the Action Plans in my professional portfolio to demonstrate achievement in clinical practice linked with theoretical knowledge. All my Action Plan are made SMART Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time (Drew and Bingham, 2004) 1. Inter-Professional To develop an awareness of the roles and services provided in the inter-professional team and identify examples of how this is appropriate in delivering appropriate patient/client focused care. 2. Enhance my knowledge about decision-making processes within care management 3. Continue to reflect in and on Practice therefore to participate in further process of reflection to establish my own learning needs (Appendix 4).

Friday, October 25, 2019

Comparing Webers and Durkheims Methodological Contributions to Sociol

Comparing Weber's and Durkheim's Methodological Contributions to Sociology This essay will be examining the methodological contributions both Durkheim and Weber have provided to sociology. It will briefly observe what Positivists are and how their methodologies influence and affect their research. It will also consider what interpretative sociology is, and why their type of methodology is used when carrying out research. It will analyse both Durkheim's study of Suicide and also Webers study of The Protestant work ethic, and hopefully establish how each methodology was used for each particular piece of research, and why. Emile Durkhiem, in sociology terminology is considered to be a Functionalist, in addition to also being a Positivist, however, strictly speaking, Durkheim was not a Positivist. This is because he did not follow the positivist rule that states that sociological study should be confined to observable or directly measurable phenomena. Functionalists believe that in order for society to function correctly, there need to be shared values to help maintain social order. Society is viewed as a stable, orderly system. This stable system is in equilibrium and reflects societal consensus where the majority of members share a common set of values, beliefs, and social expectations. Functionalists also believe that society consists of interrelated parts; each part serves a function and contributes to the stability of the society. Positivists believe that as a science, sociology can be objective and value-free. Disinterested scientific observers shouldn't and don't necessarily introduce bias into the research process. ... ...our different types of suicide, and that most suicides can fall into one of those categories. Although sociologists like J.D. Douglas would question the reliability of the statistics, due to the coroners decision being final, most sociologists would agree that Durkheim's study into suicide was successful, and indeed many have tried to develop and improve on his theory. Overall, this essay has shown that one type of methodology may not always be suitable for the particular research carried out. Both Interpretative sociology and the Positivist approach equally show that they are valid methods for carrying out research, but like everything, nothing is one hundred percent accurate. Therefore, there is always room for flaw, but in the study of Sociology, there is always room for more ways of obtaining and interpreting data.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Old ways

Net, wife. Studying old ways are more effective but time consuming. But if you want to learn It will surely take time to do so. We can't literally blame people who invented this kind of entertainment since their objective is for the great and easy way of work. It is us the people who take advantage or maybe lazy or get addicted to it. We must have control. Like as If the government will control our time usage In vile. (repeat) Studying is not that hard, we just need to go back were there's no Net, win.Studying old ways are more effective but time consuming. But if you want to learn it will surely entertainment since their objective Is for the great and easy way of work. It is us the people who take advantage or maybe lazy or get addicted to It. We must have control. Like as if the government will control our time usage in wife. Studying is not that hard, we Just need to go back were there's no Net, wife. Studying old ways are more effective but time consuming. But if you want to lear n it will surely take time to do so.We can't eternally blame people who invented this kind of entertainment since their objective Is for the great and easy way of work. It is us the people who take advantage or maybe lazy or get addicted to it. We must have control. Like as if the government will control our time usage in wife. Studying is not that hard, we Just need to go back were there's no Net, will. Studying old ways are more effective but time consuming. But If you want to learn it will surely take time to do so. We can't literally blame people who invented this kind of entertainment since their objective is for the great and easy way of work.It is us the people who take advantage or maybe lazy or get addicted to it. We must have control. Like as If the government will control our time usage In will. Studying Is not that hard, we Just need to go back were there's no Net, will. Studying old ways are more effective but time consuming. But if you want to learn it will surely take time to do so. We can't literally blame people who invented this kind of entertainment since their objective is for the great and easy way of work. It Is us the people who take advantage or maybe lazy or get addicted to It.We must have control. Like as If the government will control our time usage in wife. Studying is not that hard, we Just need to go back were there's no Net, wife. Studying old ways are more effective but time consuming. But if you want to learn It will surely take time to do so. We can't literally blame people who Invented this kind of entertainment since their bob]active Is for the great and easy way of work. It is us the people who take advantage or maybe lazy or get addicted to it. We must have control. Like as if the government will control our time usage In wife.Studying is not that hard, we just need to go back were there's no Net, will. Studying old ways are more effective but time consuming. But If you want to learn it will surely take time to do so. We c an't literally blame people who invented not that hard, we Just need to go back were there's no Net, will. Studying old ways are 1 OFF their objective is for the great and easy way of work. It is us the people who take advantage or maybe lazy or get addicted to it. We must have control. Like as if the to go back were there's no Net, wife.Studying old ways are more effective but time misusing. But if you want to learn it will surely take time to do so. We can't literally blame people who invented this kind of entertainment since their objective is for the time usage in wife. Studying is not that hard, we Just need to go back were there's no Net, wife. Studying old ways are more effective but time consuming. But if you want to have control. Like as if the government will control our time usage in wife. Studying is not that hard, we Just need to go back were there's no Net, wife. Studying old ways are time usage in wife.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

English as a Second Language Essay

The United States has long been viewed as the Land of Opportunity for many decades. Despite the numerous challenges that the country had to face within the recent years, this image of the United States has not wavered. Hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world continue to flock to the United States to try their luck, and to provide their children a brighter future than what they could ever have in their respective countries of origin. The continuous stream of immigrants into the country, and the fact that most of these immigrants come from countries where English is not the national language, it is no longer difficult to come across an individual in the streets who either speaks no English or has a limited mastery of the language. This is despite the fact that there has now been a rise in the number of countries that have now started programs to help train the younger generations, and even adults, to become fluent and adept to speaking, reading and writing in the English language. In many states in the country, particularly those located along the U. S. – Mexico border, the number of individuals who are unable to speak, read, write English fluently outnumber those that do (Carreira 2000; Lipski 2004; U. S. English Foundation 2005). As a result, the U. S. government has taken measures to establish a set of guidelines and standards for faculty teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in schools within the United States, especially in public school systems situated in areas within the U. S. – Mexico border such as South Texas. This paper aims to present and evaluate the standards that have been applied in the country with regards to the teaching of ESL in schools in the United States. The paper would also present the ideal classroom setting, standards and method of teaching of ESL in school facilities in the country. These ideal standards would then be compared to the current standards and methods that is observable in ESL teaching facilities in the country. Based on the discrepancies, recommendations would then be provided at the end of the paper in order to ensure that the ideal standards are realized. The Academic Achievement Gap Issue In order to understand the importance of the evaluation of the standards and method of teaching ESL in classrooms implemented by the U. S. government, a background on the different events that have led to the creation and implementation of these standards should first be provided. The population of students enrolling in school systems around the country has been dramatically changing since the 1990s. Because of the rise of the number of immigrants relocating in the United States, the ethnic backgrounds and origins of these students have become more diverse such that the ratio of the number of native English speakers in classrooms against non-English speakers is 1:10 (Short 2000). The diversification of the students in terms of their ethnic backgrounds has resulted to an observable division between English-speaking and non-English-speaking students, particularly when it comes to the level of their performance in academics. Research studies have shown that non-native English-speaking students constantly struggle in achieving the same academic performance and standing as compared to their native English-speaking peers, which has come to be known as the Academic Achievement Gap. Based on the studies conducted in reference to determining the factors which has resulted to the presence of this gap between students in school systems of all year levels, researchers have determined that the primary factor for the presence of this gap is due to the lack of proficiency of the English language on the part of the non-native English-speaking students (Jia, Eslami & Burlbaw 2006; Lavin-Loucks 2006; Rumberger & Anguiano 2003). The Implementation of ESL Standards Since its discovery, the U. S. government has made addressing the Academic Achievement Gap one of its major concerns. This has then resulted to the passing of the Educate America Act in order to cater to the needs of non-native English-speaking students to increase the standards of their academic performance within the classroom. As a result of the passing of this act, the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL) developed a set of guidelines to serve as standards which would be implemented within the classroom setting (Short 2000). Altogether, there are nine ESL guidelines that have been established by TESOL to be implemented in academic institutions throughout the country. These guidelines were created in order to meet three specific objectives. The first of these three objectives is to provide non-native English-speaking students the ability to communicate within their social settings. Because of their limited mastery of the English language, non-native English-speaking students become withdrawn and non-participative in classroom discussions. Through the ESL standards established by TESOL, these students would be able to develop speech act behaviors which would, in turn, allow them to participate more during class discussions, comprehend the subject matter being discussed by the instructor and be able to convey themselves during social settings (Hafemik, Messerchmitt & Vandrick 2002; Short 2000). The second objective is to allow non-native English-speaking students the ability to achieve and excel within the academic institution. Regardless of the ethnic background of the students being handled, the expectations held by instructors to their students remain the same. By being able to provide the needs of non-native English-speaking students, they would be able to meet these expectations which include the completion of assignments through both written and oral methods (Hafemik, Messerschmitt & Vandrick 2002). The third objective TESOL aims to achieve through the implementation of ESL standards in academic institutions in the United States is to provide non-native English-speaking students the ability to use the English language in a manner that would be considered by their native English-speaking peers as socially and culturally correct. While it is true that a number of immigrants relocating in the United States have some form of mastery of written and oral English, the manner as to how the language is used by such immigrants may be considered by native English-speaking individuals to be rude and unacceptable. As such, the guidelines established by TESOL aims to correct the misuse of the English language in this manner by guiding non-native English-speaking students not just in becoming fluent and adept to the English language. The guidelines and standards would also aid in the teaching of the proper means of communicating using the English language such that their native English-speaking peers would regard as proper and appropriate (Short 2000).