Tuesday, August 25, 2020

The SLOSS Debate in Conservation

The SLOSS Debate in Conservation One of the most warmed contentions in protection history is known as the SLOSS Debate. SLOSS represents Single Large or Several Small and alludes to two distinct ways to deal with land preservation so as to ensure biodiversity in a given area. The single enormous methodology favors one sizeable, coterminous land hold. The few little methodology favors different littler stores of land whose all out territories equivalent that of a huge hold. Territory assurance of either depends on the sort of natural surroundings and species included. New Concept Spurs Controversy In 1975, an American researcher named Jared Diamond proposed the milestone thought that a solitary enormous land save would be progressively helpful as far as species extravagance and assorted variety than a few littler stores. His case depended on his investigation of a book called The Theory of Island Biogeography by Robert MacArthur and E.O. Wilson. Jewels statement was tested by biologist Daniel Simberloff, a previous understudy of E.O. Wilson, who noticed that on the off chance that few littler saves each contained one of a kind animal varieties, at that point littler stores would be able to harbor significantly a larger number of animal groups than a solitary huge save. Environment Debate Heats Up Researchers Bruce A. Wilcox and Dennis L. Murphy reacted to an article by Simberloff in The American Naturalist diary by contending that living space fracture (brought about by human action or ecological changes) represents the most basic danger to worldwide biodiversity. Coterminous territories, the specialists attested, are not just advantageous to networks of reliant species, they are likewise bound to help populaces of species that happen at low populace densities, especially enormous vertebrates. Hurtful Effects of Habitat Fragmentation As per the National Wildlife Federation, earthly or sea-going living space divided by streets, logging, dams, and other human advancements may not be huge or associated enough to help species that need a huge region where to discover mates and food. The misfortune and discontinuity of natural surroundings make it hard for transient species to discover spots to rest and feed along their movement courses. At the point when living space is divided, portable species that retreat into littler stores of territory can wind up swarmed, expanding rivalry for assets and malady transmission. The Edge Effect Notwithstanding intruding on contiguity and diminishing the all out region of accessible living space, discontinuity likewise amplifies the edge impact, coming about because of an expansion in the edge-to-inside proportion. This impact contrarily impacts species that are adjusted to inside natural surroundings since they become increasingly powerless against predation and aggravation. No Simple Solution The SLOSS Debate prodded forceful investigation into the impacts of territory discontinuity, prompting ends that the practicality of either approach may rely upon the conditions. A few little holds may, now and again, be advantageous when indigenous species termination chance is low. Then again, single enormous stores might be ideal when elimination hazard is high. When all is said in done, notwithstanding, the vulnerability of annihilation chance assessments drives researchers to lean toward the built up living space honesty and security of a solitary bigger save. Rude awakening Kent Holsinger, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Connecticut, fights, This entire discussion appears to have overlooked what's really important. All things considered, we put holds where we discover species or networks that we need to spare. We cause them as extensive as we to can, or as extensive as we have to secure the components of our anxiety. We are not generally confronted with the enhancement decision ready in the [SLOSS] banter. To the degree we have options, the decisions we face are progressively similar to †¦ how little a zone would we be able to pull off ensuring and which are the most basic bundles?

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Should Names of Rape Victims be disclosed in Public

Assault, a shocking wrongdoing submitted against ladies includes constrained intercourse which makes physical and mental torment the person in question. The outcome of the wrongdoing can keep on being a reason for trouble for the casualty because of police examinations. Assault has a disgrace encompassing it and the consideration which assault casualties get makes it difficult for them to return to their every day lives. The disgrace related with assault pulls in undesirable open and media consideration, making casualties powerless to progressively mental distress.Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on Should Names of Rape Victims be uncovered in Public explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is a continuous discussion between the insurance of assault victims’ individual’s right to protection and the privilege to opportunity of press ensured by the first and fourteenth alterations (Denno 1993, p. 1115-1116). The issue of uncovering an as sault victim’s character involves debate. Advocates contend that data about the assault casualty ought to be scattered in a fair and honest way while adversaries state that the character of assault casualties ought not be uncovered given the genuine idea of the wrongdoing. Notwithstanding, research and studies show that assault casualties could get â€Å"negative responses from formal help providers† which could be â€Å"particularly destructive for them† (Ahrens 2006, p. 264). The media practices intentional limitation when detailing assault violations; be that as it may, there is no law overseeing the divulgence of assault casualties. A few states, for example, South Carolina, Florida and Georgia have resolutions which forbid media organizations from openly declaring the names of supposed assault casualties (Denno 1993, p. 1115). In any case, the absence of solid laws forestalling revelation of assault victims’ personalities has started a contention. A few columnists banter that divulgence of casualties is a significant commitment for keeping up the precision and believability of news. Overholser (1989) states that since â€Å"rape is an American shame† it isn't fitting to â€Å"hide† or â€Å"hush it up† (para 15). She further includes that it ought to be uncovered truth be told to general society since concealing data identified with assault will just bring about quieting â€Å"public outrage†(Overholser 1989, para 15). Overholser’s solid situation for uncovering the names of assault casualties comes from her conviction that a demonstration of non divulgence will just subvert the genuine idea of the wrongdoing and advance disgrace for the person in question. Also, underreporting is equivalent to quietness and a sign of disgrace to the blameless casualty. She declares that so as to expel the shame related with assault it is critical to treat is as some other wrongdoing and report the news truth be told (Overholser 1989, para 5). She expresses that assault ought to be dealt with similarly like different wrongdoings, for example, fetus removal and murder so open mindfulness will increment and the pace of assault violations will decrease. She asks ladies who have experienced this â€Å"awful crime† to shout out, and â€Å"identify themselves† so the shame related with assault can be destroyed (Overholser 1989, para 12).Advertising Looking for paper on law? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, a few researchers contend that assault casualties have just experienced a difficulty because of the shocking wrongdoing and don't bear the duty of evacuating the shame joined to assault by revealing their personalities and bargaining their entitlement to protection. Examiners who vouch for the non divulgence of assault victims’ personalities base their position on the disgrace and injury related w ith assault. There is a progressing banter about the results of uncovering an assault victim’s individual subtleties. Research demonstrates that casualties could get negative responses, for example, reprimanding the casualties for the wrongdoing (Ahrens, 2006). At the point when casualties of assault are exposed to fault, they feel doubly deceived (Campbell, 1998). Research additionally affirms that assault victims’ capture open divulgence because of the dread of dismissal by loved ones since â€Å"the extraordinary larger part of assaults are submitted by a colleague or relative and, along these lines, the assent of the casualty is frequently presumed† (Denno 1993, p. 1125). Studies show that 71% casualties had worries about their character being uncovered to their family, 69% stressed that society would reprimand them for the wrongdoing while 68% communicated fears of intrusion of protection from endless supply of their names in broad daylight (Denno 1993, p. 1125). A National Women’s Study attests that greater part of the ladies in the United States favor an enactment to prohibit the media from freely revealing individual data about assault casualties (Denno 1993, p. 1130). Many assault cases are not answered to the police because of the shame related with the wrongdoing and the humiliation it brings to the person in question. Non divulgence of names could serve to be an additional motivating force to casualties to report assault cases without the dread open presentation. The two advocates and rivals of the discussion encompassing the exposure of the casualties in assault cases hold reasonable perspectives. Naming an assault casualty could cause issues like injury and disgrace to the blamed. Consequently, to the greatest advantage of the person in question and the blamed, I bolster the view that names of assault casualties ought not be uncovered to the overall population. Security of casualties stays to be an essential driver for worry in assault wrongdoings while columnists press for exposure of casualties dependent on the privilege to opportunity of press. So far the media has not been considered responsible for exposure of assault victims’ personalities. Be that as it may, considering the genuine idea of the wrongdoing and the injury related with it, genuine idea ought to be given to state enactment for security of victims’ protection. Works Cited Ahrens, Courtney. â€Å"Being quieted: The effect of negative social responses on the divulgence of rape.† American Journal of Community Psychology 38 (2006): 263-274. Web.Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on Should Names of Rape Victims be uncovered in Public explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Campbell, Rebecca. â€Å"The people group reaction to assault: Victims’ encounters with the legitimate, clinical, and emotional well-being systems†. American Journal of Community Psychology 26 (1998): 3 55-379. Web. Denno, Deborah W. â€Å"Perspectives on Disclosing Rape Victims’ Names†. Fordham Law Review. 61.5 (1993) Web. https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=httpsredir=1article=3032context=flr Overholser, Geneva. â€Å"Why Hide Rapes?† New York Times. 11 Jul. 1989. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/11/sentiment/why-cover up rapes.html?mtrref=undefinedgwh=2F7D4C4EE92E4C6BD958CD9409FCD80Cgwt=payassetType=REGIWALL This exposition on Should Names of Rape Victims be unveiled in Public was composed and presented by client L10nheart to help you with your own investigations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; be that as it may, you should refer to it likewise. You can give your paper here.

Sunday, July 26, 2020

Identifying the Verbal Tics in your College Essay

Identifying the Verbal Tics in your College Essay Identifying the Verbal Tics in your College Essay Identifying the Verbal Tics in your College Essay Most people are unaware of their own verbal tics. While we know to look out for fillers like “uh,” “um,” “like,” even “you know,” sometimes less generic stand-ins seep into our vocabulary and stick. These words can become so ingrained in our speech patterns, they become  like verbal fingerprints. Remember when you  mocked your sister mercilessly for using the word frankly (Did she just step off the set of Gone With the Wind? or something?)  only to realize to your horror that you had started to use the word too? Slate recently published an  article about these  â€œfingerprint words,” how they come about and how they spread. Sadly, using someone else’s fingerprint word can make you seem like a follower (even if you’re totally not). Perhaps even worse is when other people start using your fingerprint word and don’t realize where it came from. (Chris Traegar is literally beside himself that literally everyone has been using the word literally.) But there is something to be said for having an unusual word in your vocabulary that identifies the speech as yours. You’re unique, and your speech is too! How do fingerprint words factor into your college essay? Most of the time words that are recycled in language so often they can be classified as verbal tics dont add anything to the meaning or impact of your thoughts, both in speech and in writing. Be cognizant of this when you read over your essay. If you can lose those fingerprint words in favor of simplicity and directness, do it. You may not know you have a fingerprint word, but you’ll realize it quickly when you proofread. So don’t skip that step! Contact us for help proofreading for fingerprint words. Read more about The College Essay Advisors Process. Check out Tips for Brainstorming Essay Topics. About CEA HQView all posts by CEA HQ »

Friday, May 22, 2020

Sight vs. Blindness in King Lear by William Shakespeare

The theme of sight versus blindness appears several times in the tragedy King Lear by William Shakespeare. In the opening scene of the play, we see King Lear as himself. The audience is left to explore his character on their own. The Earl of Gloucester is another character that is blinded. The theme of eyesight or lack of it refers to the physical and metaphorical blindness of the characters in the play. Lear announces that his kingdom is up for grabs but his daughters must express their love for him in order to be awarded her land. Goneril uses Lear’s state of metaphorical blindness to give a phony speech on her abundant love for her father. I love you more than word can wield the matter; dearer than eyesight, space and liberty...rich or rare; no less than life, with grace, health, beauty, honor...beyond all matter of so much I love you (Act I, Scene I 55-61). At this early stage in the play, we can see Lear’s lack of eyesight and Goneril’s true personality . Both Goneril and Regan’s speeches blind Lear because of their exaggerated showing of love for their father. Lear’s eyesight blinds him of reality. When it is Cordelia’s turn to deliver her speech to her father, Lear does not accept or understand his daughter’s expression of love. Goneril and Regan tell Lear what he wants to hear, however, Cordelia expresses her true feeling. Lear’s lack of sight forces him to lose his favorite daughter and also a loyal friend, Kent. Gloucester is also metaphoricallyShow MoreRelatedSight and Blindness in King Lear1615 Words   |  7 PagesSight and Blindness in King Lear In King Lear, the recurring images of sight and blindness associated with the characters of Lear and Gloucester illustrate the theme of self-knowledge and consciousness that exist in the play. These classic tropes are inverted in King Lear, producing a situation in which those with healthy eyes are ignorant of what is going on around them, and those without vision appear to see the clearest. While Lears blindness is one which is metaphorical, the blindnessRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1550 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION: By facilitating the growth of evil within William Shakespeare’s King Lear, it is evident that the tragedy’s protagonist, King Lear can be held accountable for his own victimization and ultimate downfall. The most notable aspects of this self-induced victimization include Lear’s own lack of practical wisdom and divergence from the natural order, combined with the neglect of kingship, that enables Lear as a tragic hero to create the conceptual framework in which the ulterior motives ofRead MoreHow to Read Lit Like a Prof Notes3608 Words   |  15 Pagessave it. 6. When in Doubt, It’s from Shakespeare†¦ a. Writers use what is common in a culture as a kind of shorthand. Shakespeare is pervasive, so he is frequently echoed. b. See plays as a pattern, either in plot or theme or both. Examples: i. Hamlet: heroic character, revenge, indecision, melancholy nature ii. Henry IV—a young man who must grow up to become king, take on his responsibilities iii. Othello—jealousy iv. Merchant of Venice—justice vs. mercy v. King Lear—aging parent, greedy children, a

Friday, May 8, 2020

Overpopulation and Its Modes of Persuasion; a Rhetorical...

Famine, disease, social tension and poverty – progress, societal fortitude, prosperity and facility. All of these are consequences of one question deep at the heart of the quest for sustainable human existence; the question of the maximum capacity supportable by the planet Earth. As is true of a good deal of the puzzles plaguing our time, little consensus is to be found surrounding this topic. Fueled by images of societal collapse, hunger and a complete depletion of natural resources, organizations such as The Population Institute seek to control what they view to be out of control population growth. On the other side of the fence, The Population Research Institute and like associations present descriptions of a bright future†¦show more content†¦Clicking on these images only serves to bring up an apparently related picture in the afore-mentioned gallery and provides no way of obtaining additional information on their intended meanings. The exclusive presence of South-Asian or African subjects in these photographs suggests that PRImary activities of this organization occur in distinctly non-Western countries. Further digging into the website however reveals little evidence of this. In fact, no indication is to be found anywhere that The Population Institute is active in any capacity save an informational one. All organizational operation is, it would seem, entir ely bureaucratic and restricted to the distribution of counsel and to parliamentarian lobbying. What reason could there then be for the very prominent display of images not directly linked to the mission of this institution? A possible answer is to be found in results of a study on the effectiveness of charitable outreach conducted by University of Chicago economist John List. The findings conclude, If you want to maximize giving ... the ask should be personal because the social cost of saying no is so high that just about everyone will say yes to a face-to-face ask.† Accordingly, an organization that presents personal and emotional

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Burden Of Mental Disorders Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(84) " depression in pregnant adult females but this requires farther research \[ 49 \] \." Worldwide, the load of mental upsets is immense and at least comparable to the load caused by many terrible physical diseases [ 1 ] . In the WHO Global Burden of Disease undertaking it was estimated that 50 % of all Disability Adjusted Life Years ( DALY ‘s ) in the 15-44 old ages old are due to psychiatry-related conditions [ 2 ] . Recently, depressive upsets were projected to rank 2nd on a list of 15 major diseases in footings of load of disease in 2030 [ 3 ] . We will write a custom essay sample on The Burden Of Mental Disorders Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now In malice of the many available effectual interventions, they have limited possible to cut down the entire load of mental unwellness [ 4 ] . It has been estimated that the maximal decrease of the entire load of mental disease that can be achieved by intervention in optimum scenes is merely 40 % [ 5 ] . Therefore, bar of mental upsets is indispensable. An extra statement for beef uping the function of preventative psychopathology in public wellness is the fact that at the population degree, a significant portion of the costs are caused by new instances. The new instances account for 39.2 % of the costs at the population degree [ 6 ] . Unfortunately, there are soon few possibilities for the primary or selective bar of mental disease in the non-referred population. Because grownup mental diseases have their beginnings early in life [ 7 ] , primary bar can be most effectual if started early in childhood, or even before. Indeed, bar of psychosocial jobs may get down before birth. 1.4 Gevolgen new wave psychopathologie tijdens de zwangerschap There is strong grounds that, in line with Barker ‘s â€Å" foetal beginnings of grownup disease † hypothesis [ a ] , an inauspicious mental province of a female parent during gestation is an of import and modifiable hazard factor for psychosocial jobs in her kids. The nexus between prenatal maternal negative emotions and behavioural and emotional ( ‘psychosocial ‘ ) jobs in the progeny has been demonstrated in legion carnal surveies and, more late, in worlds. Two recent reappraisals summarize the consequences of this research [ 8 ] [ 9 ] . Numerous surveies evidenced that there is a positive association between prenatal anxiousness or depression in the female parent, and cognitive, behavioural and emotional jobs in the kid. For illustration, in a big survey ( N=7448 ) prenatal anxiousness of the female parent was related to behavioural or emotional jobs of 4-year-old kids, independent of the female parent ‘s postpartum depression or anxiousness [ 10 ] . Anxiety in gestation has been related to delayed mental and motor development, independent of the female parent ‘s postpartum emphasis and depression degrees [ 11 ] . The inauspicious effects seem to be permanent: higher anxiousness degrees of the female parents early in gestation were related to an addition in ADHD and other projecting jobs in their 8-9 twelvemonth old kids [ 12 ] . An addition in criminalism in the male progeny of female parents who suffered antenatal depression was observed by Maki et al [ 13 ] . Davis and colleagues demonstrated that maternal antenatal anxiousness and depression were associated with an unfavorable disposition, i.e. infant negative responsiveness which in bend is related to behavioural suppression and societal anxiousness [ 14 ] . Chung et Al found that depression in gestation is associated with growing deceleration, premature birth and more extradural analgesia during bringing. Children of these adult females are more likely to be admitt ed on a NICU [ 15 ] . Although the mechanisms have non been to the full elucidated, the emphasis endocrine hydrocortisone, which besides seems to play a function in grownup abnormal psychology, has been proposed as the primary biological go-between [ 9 ] . Elevated maternal hydrocortisone degrees might take to cut down development of the kid. LeWinn and others found that higher maternal hydrocortisone degrees during gestation are associated with decreased childhood IQ [ 16 ] . Other mechanisms such as intoxicant and nicotine ingestion in gestation [ 17 ] [ 18 ] [ 19 ] and the effects of the postpartum mental status of the female parent ( e.g. with effects for suckling [ 20 ] [ 21 ] ) may be runing every bit good [ 22 ] . Whatever the existent mechanisms involved are, there is soon convincing grounds that kids whose female parents suffered from anxiousness or depression during gestation constitute a high hazard group for behavioural and emotional jobs. Early designation and intervention, and sooner even bar of the maternal mental wellness jobs would assist to forestall the same type of jobs in the progeny. 1.5 Antenatale depressie Until pubescence, rates of depression are approximately equal in male childs and misss, but from adolescence on, misss suffer about twice every bit frequently of depression than male childs, a rate which remains changeless until climacteric, after which it bit by bit declines [ 23 ] [ 24 ] . During gestation around 10-20 % of all adult females are enduring from depression or anxiousness, a prevalence that is basically similar to the prevalence outside gestation [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ] [ 32 ] . Known hazard factors for prenatal depression are immature maternal age [ 26 ] , being multipara with a history of obstetric complication [ 33 ] , cohabitating [ 34 ] , low societal support [ 35 ] [ 36 ] , major life events [ 37 ] , low income [ 38 ] and a history of physical and/or sexual maltreatment [ 37 ] [ 40 ] [ 41 ] . Niet gebruikte refnrs: [ 39 ] [ 43 ] [ 45 ] 1.6 Antenatale angststoornis Although there is a batch more known about depression during gestation, anxiousness upsets are the most common psychiatric upsets in grownups. Anxiety upsets have a 12-month prevalence estimated at 18 % , and are more frequently seen in adult females [ 42 ] . A recent reappraisal found that anxiousness upsets are common during the perinatal period, with rates of generalised anxiousness upset being higher during the perinatal period ( 8,5 % in the 3rd trimester ) than in the general population [ 44 ] . Because depression and anxiousness often co-occur [ 46 ] , it is likely that adult females who report depressive symptoms during gestation besides experience symptoms of anxiousness. Furthermore, anxiousness upsets are common in the absence of depression, peculiarly in adult females [ 47 ] , and the average age of oncoming of many anxiousness upsets is at a child-bearing age [ 48 ] . Harmonizing to Moss et Al, hazard factors for anxiousness may be similar to those of depression in pregnant adult females but this requires farther research [ 49 ] . You read "The Burden Of Mental Disorders Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" 1.7 Socio-economische positie The socio-economic place ( SEP ) is traditionally defined as â€Å" the comparative place of a household or person on a hierarchal societal construction, based on their entree to or command over wealth, prestigiousness and power † [ 50 ] . Different mensurable facets of SEP are normally used in research, such as educational degree, occupational position and income. Educational degree represents cognition, accomplishments, attitudes and values that can act upon health-related behaviour. Occupational position is an index of working conditions, power and wellness. Income is associated with material wellbeing and ability to devour goods and services, required for a healthy life [ 51 ] [ 52 ] . These different facets of SEP are known to be positively correlated [ 53 ] . A low SEP seems to be a hazard factor for anxiousness symptoms after gestation [ 54 ] , although other surveies found no important association between composite SEP and depressive symptoms during gestation [ 55 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] [ 58 ] [ 59 ] . In contrast, in a recent reappraisal, Lancaster et Al. presented that both a lower educational degree as a low income have a little association with depression during gestation, but non important in their multivariate analyses [ B ] . Unemployment was non even significantly associated with depression during gestation in bivariate analysis [ B ] . 1.8 Life events Harmonizing to Grant et Al and Evans, the chronic psychological emphasis ensuing from a low SEP may be associated with a high exposure to life stressors [ hundred ] [ vitamin D ] . What is known about the association of major negative life events and anxiety/depression during gestation? 1.9 Doel new wave dot onderzoek Hypothesis Low socio-economic place is associated with anxiousness and depression during gestation and this association is modified by major negative life events. Hoofdstuk 2. Methoden 2.1 Studiedesign The P5D-study. The Prediction of anxiousness and Depression during Pregnancy and the Postnatal Period ; the function of Personality ( P5D ) -study is an experimental longitudinal survey in the Dutch primary obstetric attention. The survey aims to develop a hazard mark based on established hazard factors and personality traits, to foretell ante- and postpartum anxiousness and depression at the first consult at the accoucheuses pattern. The P5D-study was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee ( Dutch: Medisch-Ethische Toetsingscommissie ( METc ) ) of the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. 2.2 Studiepopulatie en dataverzameling Data was collected at multiple assessment minutes: ( 1 ) at baseline: at the first or 2nd consult at the obstetrics pattern ( largely at the terminal of the first trimester ) ; ( 2 ) at 24 hebdomads of gestation ; ( 3 ) at 36 hebdomads of gestation ; ( 4 ) 6 hebdomads postpartum ; ( 5 ) 6 months postpartum ; ( 6 ) 1 twelvemonth postpartum. The present survey involves informations from the baseline appraisal of the P5D-cohort, which ran from April 2010 to January 2011, although the inclusion still continues. Sample choice concerned 35 obstetrics patterns in both rural and urban countries in the four Northern states of the Netherlands: Groningen, Friesland, Drenthe and Overijssel. All adult females subscribing up at these obstetrics patterns could come in the survey. The lone adult females who were excluded from engagement were adult females who had no command of the Dutch linguistic communication. The included adult females received an informational bundle about the survey. This bundle contained an information missive, an informed consent, the first questionnaires and a stamped self-addressed envelope. Midwifes handed the bundle to the adult female while explicating and stressing the relevancy of this survey. When adult females agreed to take part, they filled in the printed questionnaires, every bit good as the informed consent and their personal information ( e.g. name, reference, telephone figure and email reference ) at place and sent them to us in the stamped self-addressed envelope . When we received the printed questionnaire, accompanied by the informed consent and the personal information of the participant, we used the supplied electronic mail reference to direct the username and watchword to entree the online questionnaires. Participants were instructed to reach us in instance they had no entree to the cyberspace at any clip during the survey. In response to these state of affairss ( n=3, 0.4 % ) , we sent the extra questionnaires in print to their postal reference, once more accompanied by a stamped self-addressed envelope. 2.3 Vragenlijsten Questionnaires in print. The undermentioned questionnaires were handed in print at the obstetrics patterns: General information, dwelling of the gestational age and the day of the month of make fulling in the questionnaire, which we used to cipher the maternal age and the gestational age at any minute ; The Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory ( STAI ) [ 60 ] to measure the degree of anxiousness. We used the six-item short-form, because the full signifier would be inappropriate in the position of high figure of questionnaires. Furthermore, the six-item short-form of the STAI produces tonss similar to those obtained utilizing the full-form [ 60 ] . The participant had to bespeak how they felt at the minute of appraisal, giving one of the four replies ( non at all ( 1 ) , slightly ( 2 ) , reasonably so ( 3 ) , really ( 4 ) ) . The six statements are: I feel unagitated, I feel nervous, I feel disquieted ( dying ) , I am relaxed, I feel satisfied, I am disquieted. The cut-off mark for an at least moderate degree of anxiousness is a†°?13 in this short-form [ 60 ] ; The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ( EPDS ) [ 61 ] to measure the degree of depressive symptoms. Although the EPDS is developed to measure after gestation, the questionnaire is besides dependable to measure depressive symptoms during gestation [ 62 ] . The 10 points are: I am able to express joy and see the amusing side of things, I look frontward with enjoyment to things, I blame myself unnecessarily when things go incorrect, I am dying or worried for no good ground, I feel frightened or panicked for no really good ground, Thingss are acquiring on top of me, I am so unhappy that I have had trouble sleeping, I feel sad or suffering, I am so unhappy that I have been shouting, The idea of harming myself occurred to me. The cut-off mark for an at least moderate degree of depression is a†°?12 [ 61 ] ; An adjusted Negative Life Events Questionnaire ( NLEQ ) [ 65 ] , to buttockss major negative life events. We make a differentiation between different periods in life: in the period until the age of 16 ; between the age of 16 and until 2 old ages before gestation ; in the 2 old ages before gestation. The mentioned life events are: divorce ( of a parent, self or kid ) , new relationship, traveling, long-run and/or terrible unwellness ( of a parent, sibling, spouse, ego, kid or another of import individual ( e.g. friend, in-laws, a confidential adviser ) ) , decease ( of a parent, sibling, spouse, kid or another of import individual ) , terrible psychiatric jobs ( of a parent, sibling, spouse, kid, self or another of import individual ) , suicide effort ( of a parent, sibling, spouse, kid, self or another of import individual ) , household force, intoxicant or drugs abuse within the household or the relationship, being victim of a offense, being victim of a terrible accident, being vict im of sexual maltreatment, being victim of assault, holding an unwanted gestation ; Online questionnaire. The undermentioned questionnaire was administered online: Socio-economic place ( SEP, based on educational degree ( self and spouse ) , business ( self and spouse ) and one-year gross household income ) ) was assessed utilizing a questionnaire based on the Leidsche Rijn questionnaire ( Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht ) [ 68 ] . 2.4 Statistische analyse Although P5D contains all above-named questionnaires, merely the STAI ( anxiousness ) , EPDS ( depression ) , SEP ( socio-economic place ) and the adjusted NLEQ ( major negative life events ) questionnaires were necessary to prove our present hypotheses. First, we calculated descriptive statistics for the STAI and EPDS tonss, every bit good as for the five indexs of SEP ( educational degree ( self and spouse ) , business ( self and spouse ) and one-year household income ) and major negative life events. Second, we assessed the correlativity between the STAI and EPDS tonss, †¦ We averaged the indexs of SEP after standardisation of educational degree ( both ego and spouse ) and one-year household income ( z-scores ) . The lowest 25 % , intermediate 50 % and highest 25 % of the tonss were considered to stand for severally low, intermediate and high SEP. The degree of significance was set at 0.05, reversible. Datas were analyzed utilizing PASW statistics 18. Hoofdstuk 3. Resultaten The present survey involves informations from the baseline appraisal of the P5D-cohort, which ran from April 2010 to January 2011. A sum of 863 participants filled in a questionnaire, but 115 participants ( 13.3 % ) were excluded because they did non make full in the STAI short-form. Exclusion due to non-mastery of the Dutch linguistic communication was non registered. Descriptive statistics Anxiety. All of the 748 included participants ( 100 % ) filled in the STAI short-form. From these 748 participants, 108 ( 14.4 % ) scored above the cut-off value ( STAI a†°?13 ) . A histogram with the frequences of the STAI tonss is presented in figure 1. The average STAI mark was 9.96 ( SD = 2.68 ) . Figure 1 Histogram with the frequences of the STAI tonss. The cut-off mark for an at least moderate degree of anxiousness is STAI a†°?13: Depression. From the 748 included participants, 743 ( 99.5 % ) filled in the EPDS signifier. From these 743 participants, 31 ( 4.2 % ) scored above the cut-off value ( EPDS a†°?12 ) . A histogram with the frequences of the EPDS tonss is presented in figure 2. The average EPDS mark was 4.67 ( SD = 3.59 ) . Figure 2 Histogram with the frequences of the EPDS tonss. Cut-off value for an at least moderate degree of depression is EPDS a†°?12: Correlation between anxiousness and depression The correlativity between anxiousness and depression tonss was strong: R = 0.72, P lt ; 0.01 ( Pearson ‘s trial, two-tailed significance ) . A spread secret plan is presented in figure 3. Figure 3 Scatter secret plan, stand foring the correlativity between the STAI and EPDS tonss: Socio-economic place. From the 748 included participants, 342 ( 45.7 % ) filled in all questionnaires about SEP. The descriptive statistics of the assessed indexs of SEP are presented in table 1 ( educational degree ) , table 2 ( occupational position ) and table 3 ( household income ) . Table 1 Descriptive statistics of educational degree: Self N ( % ) Spouse N ( % ) Primary instruction ( basisschool, speciaal onderwijs ) 0 8 ( 1.9 ) Low-level secondary instruction ( LBO-opleiding ) 1 ( 0.2 ) 16 ( 3.8 ) Middle-level secondary instruction ( bijv. MAVO, VBO ) 17 ( 4.0 ) 27 ( 6.4 ) Vocational preparation ( MBO-opleiding ) 145 ( 33.9 ) 182 ( 43.3 ) High-level secondary instruction ( HAVO, VWO, Gymnasium ) 29 ( 6.8 ) 20 ( 4.8 ) Professional instruction ( HBO-opleiding ) 168 ( 39.3 ) 122 ( 29.0 ) University ( WO-opleiding ) 68 ( 15.9 ) 45 ( 10.7 ) Entire 428 420 Table 2 Descriptive statistics of occupational position: Self N ( % ) Spouse N ( % ) Yes 384 ( 89.5 ) 412 ( 96.9 ) No 45 ( 10.5 ) 13 ( 3.1 ) Entire 429 425 Table 3 Descriptive statistics of household income ( gross, in euro ‘s per twelvemonth ) : N ( % ) 0 – 14,999 14 ( 4.0 ) 15,000 – 30,999 58 ( 16.4 ) 31,000 – 59,999 207 ( 58.5 ) 60,000 – 89,999 60 ( 19.9 ) 90.000 or more 15 ( 4.2 ) Entire 354 Correlation between different facets of socio-economic place. The correlativities between the five mensural facets of SEP are presented in table 4. Literatuurlijst 1. Ormel J, Petukhova M, Chatterji S, et Al. 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Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Journal Entry free essay sample

Initially, developing an appreciation for Philippine literature in high school students requires that teachers select reading material with themes that are relevant to the modern era in which they live in. Many techniques are available for classroom use when it comes to teaching literature. Along with traditional independent reading, group work and interactive activities are commonly used in literature classroom. These methods help students learn the messages conveyed in great works of literature. Using a variety of teaching techniques can help one reach more students.It also creates new and exciting experiences for students. Marzano (1988) stated that by writing about what they are thinking, students show their thinking process as they read, allowing teachers to redirect or encourage students to be more effective readers. Teachers may assign students free writing exercises in which they can respond to elements of the story, as well as prompt driven responses. Important elements of the story, aspects crucial to the theme, and anything of unique interest to a student should be encouraged to be reflected upon during the reading. We will write a custom essay sample on Journal Entry or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The storys main conflict, its level of importance, and possible solutions are all worthy topics for students to evaluate and discuss. Students keep reading journals and document their reactions to the book as they read it. Reading journals allow students to enjoy literature and make remarks about points of interest as they come to them during the reading. Both in traditional and online classrooms, journal entries are used as tools for student reflection. Reflective practice has been prevalent in the teacher education literature for several decades (Schmuck, 2006; Schon, 1983; 1991).In the early 20th century, John Dewey defined reflective thought as â€Å"active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends†. Learning to reflect on one’s own practice has become the focus of many teacher preparation programs (Valli, 1992). By consciously thinking about and comparing issues, life experiences, and course readings, students are better able to understand links between assumption and practice and to generate justifiable, well-supported opinions.Students engage with ideas and experiences that bring about questions, comparisons, insights, criticisms, speculations, and tentative conclusion. Journal entry strategy allows students to record their responses to text as they read. Students write down phrases or sentences from their assigned reading and then write their own reaction to that passage. This strategy is to give students the opportunity to express their thoughts and become actively involved with the material they read.This interactive strategy activates prior knowledge and present feelings, and promotes collaborative learning. In helping students to activate the prior knowledge they bring to the learning environment, teachers build on students’ strengths and experiences to create new learning. Background of the Study For the past few years, a good deal of attention has been paid in helping the students create a connection in literature. A lot of activities had been used in order to improve the students’ interest in Philippine literature.Reflection creates a connection between reading and writing as students are able to reply to the author or speaker as they write their responses. The strategy supports English-language learners. As the students read and select the lines that interest them, they are improving reading comprehension skills. As they copy the lines from the text, they are learning English sentence structure and vocabulary. When they write and then share their responses, they are engaging in conversational as well as academic discourse about the texts. In this study, the students are requested to make reflections on selected literary piece they will read. This research define reflection as going beyond description and instead, sharing a reaction or explanation of what students learned. Teachers in Luis Palad National High School give various activities that would help their students improve their performance in Philippine literature. Group discussion was often used by teachers as students’ activity; the students were grouped and they discuss the story with each other, giving their insights about the story they have read.The teacher also gives some worksheets which the students answer. Currently the teachers in Luis Palad do not make use of journal entry as their students’ activity. The researcher would want to study the effects of using journal entry as students’ activity and to what extent does it help in improving ones reading comprehension and performance in literature. The researcher sees this study as ultimately developing pedagogy of reflection applicable to a variety of literary pieces. Reflection connects the world of experience and the world of ideas (Dewey, 1933).Reflective practice allows for continual development in all areas, including growth in content knowledge and habits of mind. Teachers want their students to use their inner world of ideas, prior experiences, and beliefs to make sense of their reading. Statement of the Problem The intention of this research is to investigate the efficiency of Journal Entries in enhancing the students’ comprehension skill and improving their performance in Philippine Literature. 1. What is the level of the students’ comprehension in Philippine Literature before and after the utilization of Journal Entries? . Is there a significant difference between the pretest and posttest score of the experimental and control group? 3. What is the attitude of the students toward journal entry as a means of improving their performance in Philippine Literature? Significance of the study This study could help motivate the high school students to engage more in literature. One of the best ways to engage in literary text (story, novel, and poem among others) is to have conversation with it or its author, and journal entries allow the students to do that.It could give opportunity for the students to express their thoughts and become more involved with the material they encounter, respond emotionally, ask questions, make predictions, and connect the text to their own lives. In addition, this kind of activity might help students practice the habits of good readers by slowing down the reading process and demanding that they become aware of the â€Å"conversation† they are having with themselves about wh at a text might mean. Research by Marzano (1988) emphasizes the importance of metacognition and student learning.By writing about what they are thinking, students show their thinking process as they read, allowing teachers to redirect or encourage students to be more effective readers. Moreover, the teachers might be able to establish various kinds of teaching strategies based on the reflections, reactions and prediction of the students. Also, they might be able to identify on what difficulties the students encountered while reading a certain literary context. Furthermore, this research would be able to determine to what extent is journal entry useful in teaching literature.